Research Article Open Access
Consumption of Tea in Professionals and Non-professionals
Safila Naveed* and Asra Hameed
Department of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Safila Naveed, Department of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi–74600, Pakistan; E-mail: @
Received: August 07, 2014, Accepted: September 03, 2014, Published: September 16, 2014
Citation: Naveed S, Hameed A (2014) Consumption of Tea in Professionals and Non-professionals. SOJ Pharm Pharm Sci, 1(3), 1-4.
AbstractTop
Tea is an important part of our daily life and culture. People consume it for refreshment especially during breakfast or after breakfast. It tastes good and is the cheapest drink consumed worldwide. It contains fluoride which is very helpful in our physiological and some of the pathological conditions. It also contains caffeine, which is a CNS stimulant and causes addiction of it. Now it has become a need for its users due to its addiction. Our study aimed to find out its consumption and its addiction in different age groups and genders belonging to different professions. A cross-sectional method was used to collect data from different universities, offices and other public places in Karachi city.
According to our survey tea consumption is prevalent among all age groups. 2-3 cups of tea is the mostly consumed amount of tea. People (around 49%) mostly consume 2-3cups of tea daily. The consumption of tea is more prevalent in males than in females. It causes addiction so the common symptoms found in people were headache and sedation. Tea consumption in the professional class is greater as compared to the non-professionals. While some other consume tea but they are not addicted of it. According to our survey 17% people had never consumed tea.
Keywords: Keywords: Tea; Caffeine; CNS stimulant; Addiction; Professionals; Non-professionals
IntroductionTop
Tea is the agricultural product of the leaf buds, leaves, and internodes of many cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, and is processed and cured using various methods [1]. The aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water, is also referred to as tea. Tea is the common name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself [2]. Tea, is the world’s most favored beverage; as it is a generally acceptable drink, with lots of benefits, and is comparatively cheaper than other beverages. After water, it is the second most drunk beverage in the world. Its plant originated from South East China and slowly spread to India, Pakistan and other countries [3]. Tea contains fluoride which prevents dental decay. It also prevents the deposition of cholesterol on the artery wall, which in turn can help avoid heart disease. Tea is also useful in combating bacterial diseases of the intestines because it has been found to contain compounds which prevent multiplication of bacteria. Tea is also useful in the control of diseases caused by radiation [3]. Tea drinking is a long tradition in Pakistan which has now become, an integral part of our social life. Pakistan is the third largest importer of tea after England and Russia, and the consumption of tea in the country is increasing day by day with the increase in population [4]. On an average each Pakistani, consumes a kilo of tea, each year.Kenya has 55% shares in the market so it is the largest exporter of black tea to Pakistan [5]. Pakistan has a market of 170 million kg for black tea, which, it imports from 21different countries of the world including Kenya, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh. International quality regulation only approved Black tea [6].
A type of antioxidant, Catechin is found in tea [7]. Theanine and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight is found in the tea, translating to between 30-90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml/ cup)depending on type, brand and brewing method [8,9]. Tea also contains small amounts of Theobromine and Theophylline [10]. Fluoride and aluminum have also been found to occur in tea, due to modern day environmental pollution with certain types of brick tea made from old leaves and stems having the high levels [11,12].
Caffeine is an addictive drug and overuse of tea may result in harmful adverse effects, like increased likelihood of certain sleep disorders [13].
MethodologyTop
A cross-sectional survey was conducted for the collection of data about the common tea consumption practice in professionals and non-professionals in Karachi. Data were collected between April to June, 2014 from different public places, offices, schools, and hospitals in Karachi city. A specially designed questionnaire was used for data collection. Data from 50 professionals and 50 non-professionals were collected. Different questions were asked from the professionals and non-professionals belonging to different age groups and genders like how much tea (in cups) they consumed each day? Why they take tea? How they feel if they don’t take tea? The questionnaire was designed in order to check the daily consumptions and addiction of tea in non-professional people and people belonging to different professions.
Data AnalysisTop
We have used pie charts and graphical representation for the statistical analysis of data obtained.
ResultsTop
According to our survey, 17% people belonging to different age groups and different professions do not consume tea. Other people consume tea in different frequencies. Our analysis also revealed that male consume more tea than females. We analyzed that tea caused addiction in many users so they experience headache and sedation, if they don’t take tea. We also analyzed that professionals (males and females) consume more tea than that of non-professionals.
DiscussionTop
Tea is a cheap beverage, and is commonly consumed all around the world. We surveyed 100 people, to check tea consumption across different age groups, genders, and professions. It is also consumed as a part of breakfast, in Pakistani culture. People also drink tea, as they enjoy its good taste.
People who are addicted to tea feel symptoms like sedation, headache, tiredness, fatigue, drowsiness etc, if they don’t take tea. Some people are not addicted to tea and they use it very less, so they may even feel relaxed without consuming tea. Tea is used in people of different age groups belonging to different professions. In the age group of 18-25 years, 69 people were questioned about their tea intake habit; 14 people in this age group do not drink tea, whereas 12 people drink only a cup of tea, daily.
The study reflected that in this age group, 33 people drink 2-3 cups of tea, 9 people take 4-5 cups of tea, whereas one person has more than 8 cups of tea, daily.
In the age group of 26-33 years, 15 people answered the questionnaire; out of which 3 people do not consume tea, 1 person consumes only one cup of tea, 8 people drink 2-3 cups of tea, and 3 people consume 4-5 cups of tea , daily.
Total 5 people answered the questionnaire in the age group of 34-41 years; out of which 2 people consume only one cup tea, 2 people drink 2-3 cups, and one person consumes 4-5 cups of tea, per day. In the next age group, which is 42-49 years; 2 people were questioned, and they both consume 2-3 cups of tea daily. Out of the 6 people that were questioned in the age group of 50-57 years; 2 people drink 1 cup, 3 people have 2-3 cups and only one person has 4-5 cups of tea, daily. In our survey 3 people belonged to the age group of 58-65 years; out of which 1 has 2-3 cups and 2 people have 4-5 cups of tea, per day.
In our survey 100 people were asked question about their tea drinking habit, 42 males and 58 females were asked about their habits. According to our survey, 4 males and 13 females answered that they do not consume tea. Whereas, 4 males and 13 females answered that they take only a single cup of tea per day; 26 males and 23 females answered that they consume 2-3 cups of tea daily and 7 males and 9 females drink 4-5 cups of tea every day. Only one male answered that he drinks 8 cups or more tea daily. We have analyzed that males consume more tea than that of females.
Due to high amount of caffeine in tea, it causes addiction to its users. According to our survey 41% feel normal if they don’t take tea that means they are not addicted to tea. In these 41 peoples, 17 people never consumed tea while 10 consume only a single cup of tea, 10 people drink 2-3 cups, and 4 people drink 4-5 cups daily. 36% people feel headache if they don’t have tea, which means they are extreme addicted to tea. In these 36 peoples, 4 consume 1 cup, 26 consume 2-3 cups, 5 consume 4-5 cups and one consume more than 8 cups of tea daily. 7% people feel sedation if they don’t take tea that also proved its addiction, in which 2 people drink 1 cup, 4 people drink 2-3 cups, and only 1 person takes 4-5 cups of tea daily. Other symptoms like tiredness, drowsiness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, body pain, etc. are experienced by 16% people according to our survey. Even some people answered that they can’t live without tea. Results are given in Tables 1-5 and Figures 1-4.
Data was collected from 50 professionals and 50 non-
Table 1: Consumption of tea in different age group.

 

Consumption of Tea

Total

Non-consumers

1cup

2-3 cups

4-5 cups

8 or more cups

Age groups

18-25 years

14

12

33

9

1

69

26-33 years

3

1

8

3

0

15

34-41years

0

2

2

1

0

5

42-49 years

0

0

2

0

0

2

50-57 years

0

2

3

1

0

6

58-65 years

0

0

1

2

0

3

Total

17

17

49

16

1

100

Table 2: Consumption of tea in different genders.

 

Consumption of Tea

Total

Non-consumers

1 cup

2-3 cups

4-5 cups

8 or more cups

Gender

Male

4

4

26

7

1

42

Female

13

13

23

9

0

58

Total

17

17

49

16

1

100

Table 3: Symptoms of tea addiction.

Symptoms

Non-consumers

1cup

2-3 cups

4-5 cups

8 or more cups

Total

Normal

17

10

10

4

0

41

Headache

0

4

26

5

1

36

Sedation

0

2

4

1

0

7

Other symptoms

0

1

9

6

0

16

Total

17

17

49

16

1

100

Table 4: Consumption of tea in professional and non professional.

Non-consumers

1cup

2-3 cups

4-5 cups

8 or more cups

Total

Professionals

1

3

31

14

1

50

Non Professionals

16

14

18

2

0

50

Total

17

17

49

16

1

100

Table 5: Chi-Square Test.

Pearson Chi-Square

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Consumption of tea in different age group

15.068

20

0.772

Consumption  of tea in different gender

8.624

4

0.071

Symptoms when tea is not consumed

44.962

12

0

Consumption  of tea in professional and non professional

33.802

4

0

Figure 1: Consumption of tea in different age group.
Figure 2: Consumption of tea in different gender.
Figure 3: Symptoms when not use tea
professionals to check their daily consumption of tea. The survey revealed that 17% people never take tea, in which 16 are nonprofessionals and only 1 is professional. Also, 17% use 1 cup tea, in which 14 were non-professionals and 3 were professionals. 49% people answered that they take 2-3 cups of tea daily, out of which, 18 were non-professionals and 31 were professionals. 16% people drink 4-5 cups of tea, in which 14 are professionals and only 2 were non-professionals. Among the total number of people who were surveyed, only one person (a professional) consumed 8 or more cups of tea, daily.
Figure 4: Consumption of tea in professional and non professional.
ConclusionTop
After the survey we have concluded that the use of tea is very common in our society, especially in people belonging to
different professions and has become a need and part of our daily life. People use it for refreshment. Headache and sedation are common symptoms of its addiction. Tea use is more common in males than females. Professionals are more likely to take tea than of non-professionals.
AcknowledgementTop
We would like to thank the management of offices, universities and different public places for their support.
ReferencesTop
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